Thursday, May 21, 2020
One of the most notable nineteenth century literary vampires is John William PolidoriÃ¢â¬Ës vampire. Lord RuthvenÃ¢â¬â the man of mysterious past and one of the most charismatic and interesting nineteenth century vampires- is a Gothic villain that has been used by his creator (Polidori) as a social metaphor. How is that? It is worthy of note, as Christopher Frayling claims, that John William Polidori was the foremost nineteenth century authors whose penchant to blend together components of vampirism into a coherent literary genre was an immediate success in his ever prominent story The Vampyre. Here are some testimonial lines taken from Christopher FraylingÃ¢â¬â¢s book Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula. In this book, Frayling writes:Ã¢â¬ Polidori transformed the vampire from a character in folklore into the form that is recognized today- an aristocratic fiend who preys among high societyÃ¢â¬ (Frayling ) In this respect, Senf also writes:Ã¢â¬ PolidoriÃ¢â¬â¢s work anticipates some of the ways that other writers will use the vampire as a social metaphor in realistic fictionÃ¢â¬ (Senf: 39). On the basis of the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that PolidoriÃ¢â¬â¢ s The Vampyre is not just a story of a monstrous figure of the vampire from folklore tradition waiting to be destroyed by a wooden stake through the heart, it is rather that kind of nineteenth century vampire whose literary presence is highly loaded with metaphorical connotations. For instance, Lord RuthvenÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Public Policy Meeting For this activity, I attended a Health Care City Council Meeting hosted by the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce, on September 5, 2014, located on 350 S. Bixel St., Los Angeles, CA 90017. The duty of the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce defends economic opulence and quality of life for the Los Angeles region by being the voice for business, encouraging teamwork and aiding members grow (Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce, 2007). Their goal is to help improve the business climate and quality of life in a community, usually by advocating, networking with others, and by developing business programs. The L.A. Area Chamber of Commerce Foundation was first established in 1970 to carry out the charitable and education objectives of the L.A. Area Chamber. They have been the leaders of business for over 125 years. They put their efforts by building connections that will later help improve education and overall quality of life and welfare for the citizens of Southern California (Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce, 2007). Purpose of the Meeting The purpose of this meeting was to introduce and clarify business health insurance options in the year 2015 and the significance of good health at work. The three main topics that were presented to us were: 1) 2015/16 Affordable Care Act (ACA) overview for small sized businesses with fewer than fifty full time employees; 2) 2015/16 ACA overview for medium to large sized businesses with fifty or more fullShow MoreRelatedEncno-Tarzana Community Program Essay818 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesneighboring Municipal agencies. With over 8 Community outreach meetings conducted and twice that number of agency and staff coordination meetings, outreach regarding the Encino-Tarzana Community Plan Update was both on-going and comprehensive. 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According to Max Weber, Ã¢â¬ËBureaucracyÃ¢â¬â¢ means a centrally directed, systematically organized and hierarchically structured staff devoted to the regular, routine and efficient carrying out of large-scale administrative tasks according to policies dictated by, rulers or directors standing outside and above the bureaucracy. Such a staff, as Weber rightly saw, tends to become rule-bound, functionally specialized, elevating impersonality and esprit de corps. But Ã¢â¬ËbureaucracyÃ¢â¬â¢ has also meant the opposite of organizational efficiency and effective centralized control: red tape, slowness of procedure, reluctance to take a decision, the unnecessary multiplication of people, rules and forms Ã¢â¬â a connotation achieved by singling out for attention unfavourable secondary features or tendencies of bureaucratic structures. We will write a custom essay sample on Bureaucracyr Organizational or any similar topic only for you Order Now The term Ã¢â¬ËbureaucracyÃ¢â¬â¢ has been included in, but also contrasted with, the more general concept of administration. Sometimes this is done by seeing bureaucracy as a formal and impersonal mode of administration, sometimes by seeing bureaucracy as that form of administration where administrators (the bureaucrats, the officials) have become the real rulers, arrogating to themselves privilege, power and control. An Organizational structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated. The main elements to consider while designing an organizational structure are Work Specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization and formalization. The most common Organizational designs found in use are ? Simple or Flat structure ? The Bureaucracy ? The Matrix structure ? The Team Structure ? The Virtual Organization ? The Boundaryless Organization The paper discusses the major advantages of all the above designs and all are compared with bureaucracy and the real contribution of bureaucracy is arrived at the end of discussion. Then the role of bureaucracy in improving the efficiency of the organization is elucidated. The impact of a low level bureaucracy is then discussed and its role in efficiency is discussed. Then the impacts of high level bureaucracy are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes by stating that a moderate level of bureaucracy is good for increasing the efficiency of the organization. Advantages and Disadvantages of various Organizational designs The simple structure is characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization. The strength of the simple structure lies in its simplicity. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fast, flexible and inexpensive to maintain and accountability is clear. One major weakness is that it is difficult to maintain in anything other than a small organization. The decision making becomes slow as the organization grows in size because of its low formalization and high centralization. A bureaucracy is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization, much formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command. The primary strength of bureaucracy lies in its ability to perform standardized activities in a highly efficient manner. One of the major weakness of this structure is that it causes departmental conflicts and highly inflexible always following the rules. There is no room for modification The Matrix structure is characterized by dual lines of authority and combines product and functional departmentalization. IBM adopts a modified version of the matrix structure in its overall operations. The strength of this structure lies in its ability to facilitate coordination and efficient allocation of specialists. The major disadvantage lies in the confusion it creates, its prosperity to foster power struggles, and the stress it places on individuals. The Team structure uses teams as the central device to coordinate work activities. Companies like DaimlerChrysler, Saturn, Motorola and Xerox have made extensive use of self managed teams to improve productivity at the operational level. In smaller companies, the team structure can define the entire organization. For instance, Imedia, a 30 person marketing firm in New Jersey is completely organized around teams. This structure is highly unsuitable for large companies. A Virtual organization is a small core organization that out sources major business functions. Ancle Hsu and David Ji run a virtual organization. Their firm, California based Apex Digital, is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest producers of DVD Players, yet the company neither owns a factory nor employs an engineer. They contract everything out to firms in China. This is suitable for small and large organizations. The major advantage is the flexibility and the disadvantage is lack of managerial control in key aspects of business. The Boundaryless organization is an organization that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams. The discussion of various organizational designs indicates the flexibility and adaptable nature of other designs compared to Bureaucracy. This also reveals that in most situations, Bureaucracy is good when the weaknesses of the designs are studied. Role of Bureaucracy in improving the efficiency of the organization The Primary strength of bureaucracy lies in putting like specialties together in functional departments results in economics of scale, minimum duplication of personnel and equipments, and employees who have the opportunity to talk Ã¢â¬Å" the same languageÃ¢â¬ among their peers. Further more, bureaucracy can get by nicely with less talented Ã¢â¬â and hence, less costly middle and lower level managers. The pervasiveness of rules and regulations substitutes for managerial discretion. Standardized operation, coupled with high formalization, allow decision making to be centralized. There is little need therefore, for innovative and experienced decision makers below the level of senior executives. This drastically cuts costs for the enterprise and improves the efficiency level drastically by obtaining high levels of economies of scale and spending less on employees. The bureaucracy is efficient only as long as employees confront problems that they have previously encountered and for which programmed decision rules have already been established. Impact of a low level of bureaucracy A low level of bureaucracy results in huge lack of control. Employees are at their will and decision making becomes a very cumbersome task. There will be a lot of outstanding orders and the work schedule will be way below the expected level. This considerably decreases the efficiency of the organization. In very rare cases, employees take up responsibility and achieve targets. Impact of a high level of bureaucracy A high level of bureaucracy is highly detrimental to the growth of the organization. This makes the employees to develop job insecurity and they feel to be continuously monitored. High level of bureaucracy is characterized by issuing orders and a logic to follow. There will be a lot of unwanted works and precious time will be spent in duplication of the same work in various levels of the organization. This curbs innovation and creativity leading to routine jobs and eventually leads to employee boredom. There will be no sort of an employee involvement in this situation. Employees work for long hours but the output will be way below the standards and there will be no motivation mechanisms to support the employees. This finally results in employee turnover. So, a high level of bureaucracy is to be avoided as it may arouse the employees against the management of the company. Weakness of Bureaucracy One of the major weaknesses of a bureaucracy is illustrated in the following dialogue between four executives in one company: Ã¢â¬Å"Ya Know, nothing happens in this place until we produce something, Ã¢â¬Å"said the production executive. Wrong commented the research and development manager, Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing happens until we design somethingÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"What are you talking about? Ã¢â¬ asked the marketing executive. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing happens here until we sell somethingÃ¢â¬ . Finally, the exasperated accounting manager responded, Ã¢â¬Å"It does not matter what you produce, design, or sell. Now one knows what happens we tally up the results! Ã¢â¬ This conversation points at the fact that specialization creates subunit conflicts. Functional unit goals can override the overall goals of organization. The other major weakness of a bureaucracy is something dealing with the people who work in these organizations: obsessive concern with following the rules. When cases arise that do not precisely fit the rules, there is no room for modification. Conclusion Bureaucracy is efficient to the organization only when a moderate level exists. Both a low level of bureaucracy and a high level of bureaucracy will result in the inefficient operation of the enterprise without fully utilizing the resources of the company. A moderate level of bureaucracy will ensure that control mechanisms are in place and that employees are achieving their targets. This also allows the restriction of imposing rules and procedures to the employees and causing boredom. When a saturation point is reached, bureaucracy contributes greatly to improving the efficiency of the organization to a great level. Reference: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Tenth Edition, Prentice Hall of India. Pg. 425-446, Pg. 523-535. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Garry Dessler, Human Resource Management, Eastern Economy edition. Pg 465-479. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Randy L. Desimone, Jon M. Werner and David M. Harris, Human Resource Development, Pearson education. Pg. 225 Ã¢â¬â 239 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cummings Worley, Organization Culture and Change , 2005, page 490 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Merril Ewert D and Jennifer A King Rice. 2002 October. Managing Diversity: HRM Review. Ã¢â¬ ¢ http://www. hrmguide. co. uk/history/classical_organization_theory. htm How to cite Bureaucracyr Organizational, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
However, when the two (Friar and Nurse) learn about the forbidden love, their views on the marriage contrast. While the Friar is supportive of the lovers, the Nurse has more of a biased opinion. Because of their difference in opinion, the end result is the Nurse ultimately betraying Juliet by siding with her parents, while the Friar continued to believe that peace through their marriage could be achieved. First of all, the Friar acts as RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, advisor, and parent figure. It has been shown multiple times that Romeo trusts him. One example of this, is during their conversation, when Romeo confesses his feelings towards Juliet. The Friar, upon knowing this, immediately says Ã¢â¬Å"Is Rosaline, whom thou didst love so dear, / So soon forsaken? Ã¢â¬ (2. 3. 62). His reaction reveals to us, that Romeo had previously told the Friar about Rosaline; even though he did not tell anyone else. This shows us that his trust in the Friar was even greater than that of his friends and family. We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet: Friar Laurence and Nurse Comparative Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This parallels to the situation happening with the Nurse and Juliet on the CapuletÃ¢â¬â¢s side. The Nurse acts as a parent figure to Juliet, and when Juliet realizes she had fallen in love with a Ã¢â¬Å"loathed enemyÃ¢â¬ (1. 5. 41), the Nurse is the person she reveals it to. Additionally, after JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s conversation with Romeo on the balcony, she chooses the Nurse to be her messenger. This is another piece of confirmation that shows that JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s trust in the Nurse is greater than that of her biological family; considering that she did not reveal her secret to anyone else. These two are seen as parallels because in each, the Friar and the Nurse are the only people the lovers considered trustworthy to confide in about their feelings. The FriarÃ¢â¬â¢s significance to Romeo parallels that of the NurseÃ¢â¬â¢s significance to Juliet. Despite the Friar and NurseÃ¢â¬â¢s parallel warmth toward the lovers, their opinions on the forbidden wedding contrast. Upon announcing the news of the wedding to both confidants, the Friar replies with Ã¢â¬Å"In one respect IÃ¢â¬â¢ll thy assistant be. / For this alliance may so happy prove, / To turn your householdsÃ¢â¬â¢ rancour to pure loveÃ¢â¬ (2. 3. 86-88). He had continued to support them wholeheartedly, hoping to end their family feud. However, the Nurse did not have the same reaction. After hearing RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement on the marriage, the Nurse had tried multiple times to stall delivering the news to Juliet. During their (Nurse and Juliet) conversation, the Nurse attempted to change the subject numerous times, saying irrelevant complaints such as Ã¢â¬Å"I am aweary, give me leave awhile: / Fie, how my bones ache! What a jaunt have I had! Ã¢â¬ (2. 5. 25-26), and Ã¢â¬Å"Jesu, what haste! Can you not stay awhile? / Do you not see that I am out of breath? Ã¢â¬ (2. 5. 29-30). These interruptions show us that she was not interested in giving Juliet the news, and she was hoping that Juliet wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t decide to continue through with it. Lastly, this difference of opinion results in a contrasted ending for the Friar and the Nurse. After hearing the news of RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s banishment, and CapuletÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to marry Juliet to Paris; Capulet and Juliet end up having a disagreement, that results in Nurse saying Ã¢â¬Å"I think it best you married with the countyÃ¢â¬ (3. 5. 218). This leads Juliet to conclude that the Nurse had betrayed her saying Ã¢â¬Å"Thou and my bosom henceforth shall be twainÃ¢â¬ (3. 5. 241), and ultimately shunning her away. The Friar, however, after hearing JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma, acts the opposite of the Nurse, and instead chooses to find a solution. In conclusion, Friar Laurence and the Nurse show several parallels and differences towards each other. They showed parallels through their similar roles they played to the lovers, and they showed differences through their contrasted reactions of situations, such as their views on the secret wedding, and their tested loyalties. To sum it up, their roles in the play were important as they both acted as guides towards the lovers, and in the end, despite their different choices, they both chose the decisions that they thought were best for Romeo and Juliet.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The Growth of Alternative Medicine Free Online Research Papers The Medicine of the Future: The Growth of Alternative Medicine in Society Alternative medicine is a very general term whose definition can be quite controversial. It includes many holistic techniques for preventing and treating illnesses. Acupuncture and many other therapies have long been a part of Asian cultures and have recently integrated into the Western culture. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) comprises a wide variety of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. Alternative medicine should be considered a real compliment to conventional medicine due to its standard of practice, treatment, and costs. From Reflexology and Rolfing to shiatsu and dream work, a mass of alternative medical therapies confronts us today. James Whorton notes in Nature Cures that the recent explosion in alternative medicine actually reflects two centuries of competition and conflicts between mainstream medicine and numerous unorthodox systems. The history of alternative medicine in America brought by Asian cultures examines the major systems that have emerged from 1800 to the present. Alternative medicine practitioners take a holistic approach to health (Whorton13). Alternative medical systems built upon complete systems of theory and practice. Often, these systems evolved apart from and earlier than conventional medical approaches used in U.S. Examples of alternative medical systems that have developed in Western cultures include acupuncture, homeopathic medicine, and naturopathic medicine. Systems that have developed in non-western culture include traditional Chinese medicine and ayurveda. Mind and body medicine uses a variety of techniques designed to enhance the mindÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. Some techniques that were considered CAM in the past have become mainstream, for example patientÃ¢â¬â¢s support groups and cognitive behavior therapies. Biologically based therapies in CAM use substances found in nature but yet scientifically unproven therapies. Manipulative and body-based methods in CAM are based on manipulation and/or movement for one or more parts of the body; these include chiropractic or osteopathi c manipulation and massage. Energy therapies involve the use of energy fields such as biofield therapies and are included to affect energy fields that surround the human body. Bioelectromagnetic-based therapies involve the unconventional use of electrons, a genetic field such as pulse fields, magnetic fields, or alternative current or direct current fields (Whorton 277). Acupuncture is a strong component in China and can be traced to the Chinese health care system for at least 2,500 years (Kowalski 49). The procedure involves inserting hair-thin steel surgical needles into specific points in the body, which are supposed to make one feel better and be healthier. This is only the technical aspect though. To understand the art of this procedure, one must have a background in Chinese medicine. How it works is this: health is achieved though the balance of the opposing forces between yin (spirit), and yang (blood). The attraction between them creates an energy called Qi (pronounced chee). This energy flows to all parts of the body through channels, which are known as meridians (pathways that run along the surface of the body and branch into the bodys interior). An imbalance in these forces is what is believed to cause illness and disease. When needles are placed on the acupuncture points along the meridians, balance and, hence, health is restored. Ã¢â¬Å" There is several styles of acupuncture, the differences being how the acupuncture points are stimulated, be it by hand pressure, electrical impulse, ultrasound, or wavelengths of lightÃ¢â¬ noted Bernal. Acupuncture was introduced to American doctors by Sir William Osler (Whorton 263), who is often called the father of modern medicine. In a classic medical textbook written more than a century ago, he said, Acupuncture is the most effective treatment of all for acute lumbago, [.] ordinary bonnet needles, sterilized, will do (Whorton 263). The first time acupuncture really got notice was not until 1972. James Reston, a New York Times correspondent, was assigned to cover President Nixons now historic trip to China. During his stay, Reston had an emergency appendectomy and was treated with acupuncture for the postoperative pain he had to endure. The report of his experience with acupuncture caught the interest of many American doctors who wanted to see how the Chinese used acupuncture as an anesthetic. Many non-physicians went to train overseas or with acupuncturists who had been silently practicing in the States, in many Asian communities. These people then fought to gain laws that woul d allow acupuncture to be practiced legally in the US (Whorton 265). In contrast to acupuncture, ayurveda Ã¢â¬Å"the science of lifeÃ¢â¬ is based on the belief that the natural state of the body is one of balance. We become ill when this balance is disrupted, with specific conditions or symptoms indicating a specific disease or imbalance. Ayurveda emphasizes strengthening and purifying the whole person, whereas in conventional medicine, the focus is on a set of symptoms or an isolated region of the body (Chopra 14). Currently in the United States, there are two adaptations of classical Ayurvedic medicine being practiced. Maharishi Ayur-Veda was started within the past decade by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the Hindu swami best known for popularizing Transcendental Meditation (Chopra 148). Most of the published studies of Ayurveda are on this type, which concentrates on consciousness and meditation as key in health and healing. Dr. Deepak Chopra, a Western-trained endocrinologist, recently popularized the more traditional type of Ayurveda. While advocating the use of meditation, this type places more emphasis on the other Ayurvedic mind-body modalities such as yoga, breathing, and massage therapy, in an attempt to regain balance (Chopra 18). The name, homeopathy, comes from the Greek word Ã¢â¬Å"homioÃ¢â¬ , meaning Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"pathosÃ¢â¬ , meaning Ã¢â¬Å"sufferingÃ¢â¬ . Homeopathic medicines treat illness by going with, rather than against, symptoms that are seen as the bodys natural defenses. In contrast, allopathic or conventional medicine acts by suppressing the symptoms of illness (Kowalski 22). The underlying philosophy of homeopathy, known as similia similibus curentur or like may be cured by like, was developed by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), a German physician, while experimenting with cinchona bark (quinine) as a cure for malaria (Kowalski 27). When Hahnemann administered cinchona to himself, he developed the symptoms of malaria fever, diarrhea, vomiting, pain, and numb fingers and toes; however, when quinine was given to a patient complaining of those same symptoms of malaria, he found it helped them fight the illness. From his initial experiment, Hahnemann and his students methodically tested thousands of substances in a process called provings (Kowalski 28). The practice of homeopathic medicine flourished in both Europe and the United States in the late 1800s until the early 1900s. In the early 1900s, there were 22 homeopathic medical schools and over 100 homeopathic hospitals in the United States (Whorton 70). The practice of homeopathic medicine dropped sharply with the rise of allopathic medicine, but it has regained its popularity in recent years. In Europe, it continues to be practiced along with conventional medicine, particularly in England, France, Germany, and Greece. Homeopathy is extremely popular in India which has over one hundred, four-year homeopathic medical schools and it is also practiced in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and South Africa (Whorton 81). These are just a few examples of how alternative medicine can work. In comparing conventional medicine to alternative medicine, many doctors dismiss alternative medicine as unproven, ineffective, and potentially dangerous nonsense, leading advocates to seek the kind of evidence that will persuade the scientific community at large. Claire Rayner of the Doctor Patient Partnership is skeptical and says patients should tread carefully if they are looking for alternative treatment because science proves that is not always the answer (Arias 34). For example, hormone therapies have not proven very successful with natural health. Most cancers often survive any type of natural treatment and in most cases claim the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life. A major objection to alternative medicine is that it is done in place of conventional medical treatments. As long as alternative treatments are used in addition to standard conventional medical treatments, most physicians find most forms of complementary medicine acceptable (Fine 23). Consistent with previous studies, the CDC recently reported that the majority of individuals in the United States (i.e., 55%) used CAM in conjunction with conventional medicine (More Americans). Patients should however always inform their physician if they are using alternative medicine. Some patients do not tell their doctors since they fear it will hurt their patient-doctor relationship. While there are those physicians who practice complementary medicine who believe there is value in alternative forms of treatment, care must be taken when these treatments are used in conjunction with mainstream medicine. Some alternative treatments however can interfere with regular treatments. An example is the comb ination of chemotherapy and large doses of vitamin C, which can severely damage the kidneys. Some methods once considered alternative have later been adopted by conventional medicine, when confirmed by controlled studies indicating the boundary lines between the two have changed over time. Many very old conventional medical practices are now seen as alternative medicine, as modern controlled studies have shown that certain treatments were not actually effective. Supporters of alternative methods suggest that much of what is currently called alternative medicine will be similarly assimilated by the mainstream in the future (Sierpina 281). Alternative medicine provides the public with services not available from conventional medicine. This argument covers a range of areas, such as patient empowerment, alternative methods of pain management, methods that support the biopsychosocial model of health, cures for specific health concerns, and stress reduction services. Another preventative health service that is not typically a part of conventional medicine or complementary medicines palliative care, and is practiced by world-renowned cancer centers is COX-2 inhibiting herbs. The inhibition of COX-2 enzyme significantly reduces the inflammation that is currently linked with arthritis, colon and other cancers, and AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (Newmark 23). While taking these herbs and undergoing alternative therapies there is a concern that patients may delay seeking conventional medicine that could be more effective, and potentially resulting in harm. Relying on the placebo effect is therefore dangerous, since it may convince people that the alternative treatment works while it is in fact only the placebo effect. People who are thus convinced that alternative medicine helped them with a mere inconvenience may be tempted to use ineffective alternative medicine for a serious, possibly life-threatening illness. Due to the wide range of types of alternative medicine, few criticisms apply across the board. Criticisms directed at specific branches of alternative medicine range from the minor (conventional treatment is believed to be more effective in a particular area) to potential violations of the known laws of physics, for example, in homeopathy. While some scientific evidence exists regarding CAM therapies many forms of alternative medicine are rejected by conventional medicine, because the efficacy of the treatments has not been demonstrated through double-blind randomized controlled trails (Arias 34). Where alternative methods provide temporary symptomatic relief, this has been explained as being due to the placebo effect, natural healing, or the cyclic nature of some illnesses. Practices termed as alternative medicine have caused deaths indirectly when patients have used alternatives in attempts to treat such conditions as appendicitis and failed. Proponents of alternative medicine say that people should be free to choose whatever method of healthcare they want. Critics agree that people should be free to choose, but when choosing, people must be certain that whatever method they choose will be safe and effective. People who choose alternative medicine may think they are choosing a safe, effective medicine, while they may only be getting pretend remedies. This can be a particular issue in the treatment of children, animals, and individuals whose capacity to evaluate the treatment is impaired (Kowalski 24). When examining health care where it is state-funded or funded by medical insurance, alternative therapies are often not covered and must be paid for by the patient. Further, in some countries, some branches of alternative medicine are not properly regulated. Therefore, there is no governmental control on who practices and no real way of knowing what training or expertise they possess in these countries. Ã¢â¬Å"CAM treatments are not reimbursed by health plans in United States, but auto accidents or Workers Comp and some Blue Cross Blue Shield management plans covers this treatment, and they are out of pocket expense,Ã¢â¬ noted Bernall. Homeopaths have to be licensed in one or more organization for managed care reimbursement. Even though researchers show great benefit from homeopathy drugs they need to be licensed or work under an acupuncturist, naturopath, M.D. or D.O. (Ullman 72). The uses of CAM therapies are evolving but the physicians do not have enough knowledge; their main concern is the safety and efficiency of CAM. In the past there is a thin based and underpowered study on CAM. Increasing numbers of medical colleges have begun offering courses in alternative medicine; however, the term used in the universities is Ã¢â¬Å"integrative medicineÃ¢â¬ (Sierpina 280).The practitioner of CAM focuses on the patient, as a whole being. This will lead to an era where both conventional and alternative medicine will be practiced. Ã¢â¬Å"It is an approach that many physicians useÃ¢â¬ (Sierpina 281). Many health systems offer CAM therapies as an awareness program for pain management, in conjunction with their standard care (Sierpina 281). Alternative medicine is popular among the Eastern cultures as well as Western cultures. Since patients and the societies general care is shifting to alternative method of care the idea that a collection system could be implemented in a CAM clinic utilizing several treatment modalities has merit. Outcomes demonstrated both a significant reduction in pain and improvement in quality of life for subject who utilized acupuncture, chiropractic, or naturopathy treatments. While whole medical systems differ in their philosophical approaches to the prevention and treatment of disease, they share a number of common elements. These systems are based on the belief that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body has the power to heal itself. Treatment is often individualized and dependant on the presenting symptoms. The alternative medicine should be used as a system with conventional medicine. Work Cited Arias, Donya c. Ã¢â¬Å"Alternative MedicinesÃ¢â¬â¢ popularity prompts concern.Ã¢â¬ NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Health August 2004(34:6). Bernall, Fernando. Personal Interview. 31 May 2005 Chopra, Deepak M.D. Quantum Healing. New York: Bantam Books.1989. Fine, Allan. Ã¢â¬Å"Growth in Demand for CAM.Ã¢â¬ Complementary Alternative Medicine Managed care quarterly 2005, 13(2):23 Kowalski, Kathiann M. Alternative Medicine Is IT For YOU? Springfield, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, 1998. More Americans Than Ever Use CAM, Says CDC. Nursing 2004 September 2004.73. Newmark, Thomas M and Paul Schulick. Beyond Aspirin. Arizona: HOHM press, 2000. Sierpina, Victor. S M.D. Ã¢â¬Å"complementary and Alternative Medicine: Introduction,Ã¢â¬ Southern Medical Association March 2005 (98:3):280-281 Ullman, Dana. Ã¢â¬Å"Homeopathy and Managed care: manageable or unmanageable?Ã¢â¬ The journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1999 (5):65-73 Whorton, James c. Natures Cures the History of Alternative Medicine in America. New York: oxford university press, 2002. Research Papers on The Growth of Alternative MedicineArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Genetic EngineeringBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaOpen Architechture a white paperInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanTwilight of the UAW
Monday, March 2, 2020
Essay on Homosexual Relationships Essay on Homosexual Relationships Homosexual relationships are romantic connections between two people of the same gender. These connections cover all cases of gays and lesbians. These relationships are not based on the willingness to procreate or nature moral values, but rather on the desire to fulfill the passions of the persons involved. Through the forums supported by human rights groups, many homosexuals have come in the limelight demanding legal recognition for their sexual orientations. James Skillen is one of such activists. He observes that governments should play passive roles when it comes to the issues of marriage. Instead, Skillen suggests that the government should learn to accommodate the Ã¢â¬Å"constantly changing definition of marriageÃ¢â¬ to make provisions for homosexual marriages (Skillen, 1). A similar observation was made by Ellie Schaack in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Gay Marriage is a RightÃ¢â¬ . Schaack points out that the right to marry is explicit and dependent on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s unique attributes (Schaack, 1). Unfortunately, many countries are continually legalizing homosexuality. For instance, a US court was reported to have delivered a judgment forcing the federal government to amend laws to recognize gay marriages (Hurley, 2). Sexual desires should be used to set up family units under which social values and cultural norms get passed from one generation to another. The future of any society depends on the ability of the current generation to procreate and sustain values traditionally associated with that society. Family is the fundamental unit of the society and is, therefore, important for the formation of the society. Sex should serve as a tool for sustaining romantic relationships that result from marriage and formation of the family. Homosexuality does not reflect social welfare, but rather individualism. Instead of introducing legal provisions to promote homosexuality, the society should seek to help those in the practice so that they can relate to their healthy sexual desires. This is possible through medicine and psychological treatment.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
The Professional Health Educator in the 21st Century - Essay Example Essentially the health educator can be defined as the facilitator of disease prevention and promotion of healthy lifestyles by way of knowledge and behavioral change. The profession of health care educator exposes the working professional to inter-disciplinary preventative healthcare research and literature. Disciplines incorporated into the profession of health education include biology, physiology, psychology, sociology, education, community services and research methodology. As a science, health educator science is dynamic and continuously developing from previous knowledge. As such, the health educator is required to take part in at least four years of academic training at an approved institute. And although there is no global consensus as to the optimal length of training, health educator students are expected to complete their Bachelor's Degree in Health Education or Health Promotion to be able to practice. As well, the health educator professional has the responsibility to continue their education through professional development courses. This may entail attending workshops and seminars, professional organization meetings, or adding to the ir academic achievements within the formal context of the university. The health educator professional is expected to access to numerous journals and other literature so as to be aware of the changes of knowledge and practices within their discipline.In these ways, members of the public can be assured that the services provided by the health educator are of a very high standard. Their academic studies have focused on concepts of attitude and lifestyles behavior and so the professional health educator can deliver a unique service to the community. Also, in order for the health educator to be accepted as a member of a professional body it is necessary that they demonstrate a high level of proficiency of selected competencies. These competencies have been developed within a Framework for the Development of Competency-Based Curricula for Entry-Level Health Educators.At the national level, professional health educators are contributing to the shaping of legislation in regards to preventa tive health care services. Health educators contribute to legislative changes by way of lobbying or debating government decisions and approaches, either as individuals or as a professional group. Such changes highlight the importance of belonging to a professional organization of health education, as often changes sought are in regards to the profession itself, and the overriding body can lobby for changes to legislation that ensure the optimum standards of pay and working conditions and opportunities for its members. The professional organization, such as the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Inc (NHEC), the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE), or the American Association for Health Educators (AAHE), are comprised of members who have been awarded certification of achieving a high level of competencies at university. And it is the professional organizations that determine the standards that must be obtained in order to become a member. Thus, there is little room for lay control from those